Heraclius
Emperor,  610 - 641, 
"In the first and last years of a long reign [Heraclius] appears to be the slave of sloth, of pleasure, or of superstition; the careless and impotent spectator of the public calamities. But the languid mists of the morning and evening are separated by the brightness of the meridian sun."
Gibbon  Decline & Fall 
AV solidus of Jerusalem, 611-613, officina , 4.48g, 20.5mm. Holed at 11 o’clock.
Obv.  dNhЄRACLI ySPPAVG;  Bust of Heraclius looking like Phocas with legend of Heraclius.
Rev.  VICTORIA AVGIΠ;  Angel standing facing, holding staff surmounted by Chi-Rho and globus cruciger; in exergue, CONOB.
Bendall_Jerusalem , BMC 1 (Constantinople), DOC 186 (Alexandria), MIB 76 (Cyprus), SB 850
It is generally presumed (Wroth, etc.) that this very rare, very first issue of the reign was rushed out by the mint before they had received any instructions, or likeness of the new emperor. DOC raises the interesting possibility that perhaps Heraclius initially wore the same style of pointed beard as his predecessor and changed style to differentiate himself. "Recent evidence has cast doubt upon the attribution by S. Bendall and M.F. Hendy of this and the later solidi, SB 852-852A, to the mint of Jerusalem [Bendall only ascribes this single bust type to Jerusalem, quite convincingly]. It is clearly an issue of a subsidiary mint in the east, but no definitive conclusion can be drawn as regards to place and date of origin. Nevertheless, the use of a Phocas portrait for this type, unique for a Heraclius solidus, could point to it being struck near the end of the revolt of Heraclius (circa 610 AD), when Heraclius had been proclaimed emperor, but with a formal imperial imago yet to be prepared. This unknown subsidiary mint, signed I, IX, or IΠ, struck solidi to pay eastern troops loyal to Heraclius, and apparently operated sporadically as a replacement for the mint of Antioch, which had been shut down by Heraclius in 610 AD. The (IP) mint itself disappears shortly after the Sasanian invasion of the eastern provinces in 614 AD." - CNG Triton VII Catalogue (12 Jan 2004) Simon Bendell's interesting article on the coinage of Jerusalem, in which he discusses the various types ascribed to Jerusalem and evaluates the evidence for each, can be found on the web at http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/numi_0484-8942_2003_num_6_159_2517. Bendall makes a well argued case for this type being struck in Jerusalem whilst questioning the attribution of the type with Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine (Sear 852 and 852A) to Jerusalem. According to Glen Woods byzantinecoins.com site, there are only 10 to 20 of this type known.

It was Heraclius' father, the exarch of Carthage, who first raised the standard of rebellion against the tyrannical Phocas. The first years of this emperor, a solid, blonde-haired man in his mid-thirties, were tumultuous. Partisans of Phocas still held Antioch and the Persians, under the general Shahrbaraz, invaded anew, capturing Jerusalem in 614 and occupying Egypt throughout most of the 620s. Despite these troubles though, Heraclius was to prove himself one of the great emperors.

Jerusalem had at first peaceably surrendered to the Persians. But then, the Christians had risen up and slaughtered the Persians and the Jews. The reprise was swift. The Persian army returned and with their Jewish allies turned on the Christians. Among the rather biased Romans, this second massacre became infamous. It had been the emperor's drastic plan to quit Constantinople and move the imperial capital to Carthage, but he now made an oath in St. Sophia to never abandon New Rome.

Heraclius took control of a troubled situation, and turned it around. He concluded a peace with the Avars and marched against the Persians.

In 622 the emperor invaded Armenia successfully, but by 626 Shahrbaraz was besieging Constantinople itself. Under a lesser emperor, this might have been the end of the empire, but not only did Heraclius drive away a combined Persian and Avar force, the very next year he invaded Persia itself. The panicked Persians overthrew and murdered Chosroes II and Heraclius recovered the True Cross and the Holy treasures of Jerusalem. The great historical rival of Rome, the Sassanian Persian Empire, was shattered.


Revolt of the Heraclii, 608-610
Æ follis of Alexandretta, 610, officina A, 8.75g, 30mm, 185º.
Obv.  δmNЄR(ACLI)OCONSULII;  Facing busts of Heraclius, on left, and his father, the Exarch Heraclius, on right; both are bearded and bare-headed wearing consular robes; between their heads, cross.
Rev.  Large M between A / N / N / O and X / IIII; above, cross; beneath A; in ex, (AΛЄXA)NΔ.
DOC 16, MIB 16a (Alexandria), SB 722
Alexandretta is the modern Iskenderun, in southern Turkey, close to the Syrian border and about thirty miles north of Antioch (modern Antakya). CNG lists this coin as being from the mint of Alexandria.

Sadly though, Heraclius was to live through the beginning of, and have to face the initial challenge of, one of the greatest military explosions in history. It is said that Heraclius' persecution of the Jews was inspired by a prophecy that one day the empire would be overcome by a circumcised race, but the emperor was misdirecting his energies. It was against a destroyed Persia Empire and war-fatigued Roman one that the Arabs burst. In 634 the Muslims captured Syria and two years later they annihilated the Imperial army at Yarmuk. Mesopotamia was taken, and Armenia and Egypt attacked. The emperor did all he could but, but the groundswell of Islam was a near irresistible force.

Heraclius married twice, first to the beautiful north African Eudocia (originally, Fabia) and secondly to his niece Martina. This second marriage was widely condemned as incestuous: the deformities (one son was born wry-necked, another, deaf and dumb) and premature deaths (another son and two daughters) of their children were regarded as divine punishment.

A sign of Heraclius' effectiveness is that he was the first emperor in a long time to actually be able to establish a dynasty. Though he was, like every emperor of his time, unable to resolve the religious disputes that split his people - the leading opponent of his attempts at doctrinal compromise was his former private-secretary, St Maximus the Confessor - Heraclius is frequently considered to have established the basis of the military system of Themes, whereby each province granted land to soldiers in return for hereditary service. These themes were to prove the backbone of medieval Byzantine military strength. After a long, troubled, but ultimately beneficial reign, Heraclius died in Constantinople in early 641.

Heraclius Nicomedia, Thessalonica, Cyzicus and Catania were all closed as mints by Heraclius in 629 or 630. All would stay closed permanently, with the exception of Thessalonica which would be reactivated four and a half centuries later by Alexius Comnenus.
Alexandria
Under Heraclius the coinage of Alexandria discarded the profile-bust that had characterized the obverse design of its output throughout the Byzantine period, and replaced it with the full-frontal bust or standing figures of the solidii of the capital. The traditional denominations, based on units of six nummi, remained. These were tumultuous times for the province of Egypt. For most of the 620s, the province was occupied by the Persians - during which time they appear to have issued their own version of the dodecanummium - and fell to the Muslims soon after Heraclius' death. Grierson notes how the study of the Alexandrian coinage of the period is further complicated by the lack of a specifically Muslim coinage before the 730s.
Æ dodecanummium of Alexandria, 613-618, officina , 4.74g, 16mm, 180º.
Obv.  (d)dNNh hЄRA C;  Facing busts of Heraclius, bearded on left, and Heraclius Constantine, beardless on right. Each wears chlamys and crown with cross.
Rev.  Large IB, with cross potent between. In ex., AΛЄZ.
Berk 584, DOC 189, SB 853
Æ dodecanummium of Alexandria, 613-618, officina , 5.37g, 18mm, 160º.
Obv.  dmh ERAC;  Facing busts of Heraclius, with short beard, on left, and Heraclius Constantine on right. Each wears chlamys and crown with cross between them on two steps.
Rev.  Large IB with cross above N between; in ex., AΛЄZ.
DOC 190, MIB 201, SB 854
Very rare AE 12 Nummi with cross above N between IB. DOC states the N may stand for nummi.
Æ dodecanummium of Alexandria, 618-628, officina , 6.15g, 17mm, 180º.
Obv.  Facing beardless bust of possibly Chosroes II of Persia, wearing cuirass and crown surmounted by simple cross; to left, star; to right, crescent.
Rev.  Large IB, with cross potent on globe between; in ex., AΛЄZ.
Berk 856, DOC 191, SB 855
This type is thought to have been minted during the Persian occupation of Alexandria between 618 and 628, and to depict the Persian shah, Chosroes II. The starand cresecent are frequent motifs on the Persian coinage, including that of Chosroes himself.
Æ dodecanummium of Alexandria, 628-629, officina , 6.73g, 19mm, 10º.
Obv.  Facing busts of Heraclius, with short beard, on left, and Heraclius Constantine on right. Each wears chlamys and crown with cross between them on two steps.
Rev.  Large IB, with cross potent on globe on solid triangular base between. In ex., AΛЄZ.
DOC 193, SB 857
Æ dodecanummium of Alexandria, 629-630, officina , 2.86g, 14mm, 90º.
Obv.  Facing busts of Heraclius, with short beard, on left, and Heraclius Constantine on right. Each wears chlamys and crown with cross between them on two steps.
Rev.  Large IB, with cross potent atop triangle between. In ex., AΛЄZ.
DOC 194, MIB 205, SB 858
Dumbarton Oaks calls very rare this type a "Mule of Classes 3 and 4 [Sear 857 and 859]".
Æ dodecanummium of Alexandria, 629-631, officina , 4.92g, 15mm, 180º.
Obv.  No legend. Facing busts of Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine, Heraclius with long beard; between them cross potent.
Rev.  Large IB, with cross potent atop triangle between. In ex., AΛЄZ.
DOC 195, MIB 205, SB 859
Æ dodecanummium of Alexandria, 632-641, officina , 8.17g, 20mm, 180º. Unearthed in Cyprus.
Obv.  No legend. Heraclius in centre, with Heraclius Constantine on right and Heraclonas on left, standing facing, each wearing chlamys and holding globus cruciger in right hand. Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine wear crowns topped with crosses.
Rev.  Large IB, with cross potent atop triangle between. In ex., AΛЄZ.
DOC 196, SB 860
Æ dodecanummium of Alexandria, 632-641, officina , 7.63g, 19mm, 180º. Unearthed in Cyprus.
Obv.  No legend. Heraclius in centre, with Heraclius Constantine on right and Heraclonas on left, standing facing, each wearing chlamys and holding globus cruciger in right hand. Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine wear crowns topped with crosses.
Rev.  Large IB, with cross potent atop monogram of M with bar across the top between. In ex., AΛЄZ.
DOC 197, SB 861
Æ hexanummium of Alexandria, 613-618, officina , 2.59g, 17mm, 180º. Unearthed in Cyprus. Visibly overstruck on dodecanummium.
Obv.  Cross potent on base above two steps.
Rev.  Large S (S = 6).
DOC 198, SB 862
That a coin of six nummi should be overstruck on one of twelve seems peculiar at first. Under Heraclius though the coinage of Alexandria became mucuh more weighty, with thicker flans than for the dodecanummium issues of previous reigns.
Æ hexanummium of Alexandria, 629-641, officina , 5.30g, 19mm, 170º.
Obv.  Date Palm tree with fruit hanging from lower branches on either side.
Rev.  Large S.
BMC 306-8, DOC 200, SB 864
Footnote in DOC reads: "The date palm, while appropriate enough to Africa, has no other connection with Heraclius. H. Longuet ... proposed to attribute them to Carthage instead of Alexandria, since the palm tree was a traditional Carthaginian symbol and appears on 'Vandalic' coins and on a pentanummium of Maurice. But fabric and denomination are decisively in favor of Egypt." DOC goes on to say the dating of this type is uncertain. The large flan size leads Grierson to assume the issue follows the reform of year 20, but he concedes that it also might "correspond to the heavy dodecanummia assigned to the Persian invasion." The attribution to Alexandria seems to date back to Wroth. In the footnotes to his entry of this issue in the British Museum Catalogue he cites an earlier source which attributes these to Alexandria - with which he is in agreement - and to Justinian I. Whilst ceding that Justinian is the only other likely candidate, as he and Heraclius are the only emperors known to have issued this S denomination, Wroth argues that their heavy weight is more in line with the exceptional issues of Heraclius than the standardized low weight of Justinian.
Antioch
The very rare coins with the image of Heraclius and a mintmark of Antioch can safely be said to be imitative issues struck probably during the Persian occupation of Syria during the early 620s. The Imperial mint at Antioch closed around 610.
Æ follis of Antioch, c. 658-680, officina B, 4.72g, 25mm, 180º. Ref.: Sear --, MIB X43 !!, Köhler-Osbahr 186
Obv.  Three standing figures, based on a follis of Heraclius.
Rev.  Capital M with cross above, to left A / N / N / O; to right, regnal year X / IIII (623/4); beneath M, Officina B; in ex., "mintmark" THP imitating coins of Antioch.
EncHellenic Mint of Antioch, Grierson p. 106, MIB X43, Oriens 
An Eastern imitation of Heraclian coinage struck either by the Persians during their occupation of the eastern part of the empire or slightly later, by the Arabs. Grierson, in Byzantine Coins, says of this type: "...there exist Heraclian ... folles ... with badly formed mint-marks THEUP or THP, which have led some scholars to postulate a reopening of the mint in the 610s and the 620s, [the mint had been out of operation since circa 610,] but their poor style and the abnormal features of their die linkage ... make it unlikely that they are anything more than local Syrian imitations of the Persian occupation period." In the BMC Wroth ascribes the two figure type of Seleucia to Antioch, taking the mintmark S?LISy to be a badly formed version of ThEUP. The Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World refers to this type in a footnote: "On previous times some issues bearing the mint mark of Antioch had been attributed to this mint under the reign of Herakleios (610-641). Balty, J. C., « Un follis d’Antioche daté de 623/4 et les campagnes syriennes d’Héraclius », Schweizer Münzblätter 20 (1970), pp. 4-12 ; Bates, “Five Byzantine Notes”, pp. 80-82 ; Pottier, H., « Deux folles d’Héraclius et Héraclius Constantin datés des années XII et XIV », Bulletin du Cercle d’Études numismatiques 14 (1977) pp. 51-59; Pottier, H., « L’atelier d’Antioche sous Héraclius », Bulletin du Cercle d’Études numismatiques 16 (1979) pp. 66-81; Hahn, W., “Minting activity in the diocese of Oriens under Heraclius”, Numismatic Circular 85 (1977) pp. 307-308. Nevertheless, the modern scholarship does not recognize them as official Byzantine issues. Grierson, Byzantine Coins, pp. 85, 106; Ηahn, Zur Münzprägung, p. 194."
Carthage
AV solidus of Carthage, 615-616, officina , 4.43g, 14mm.
Obv.  DNЄRALIOЄTЄRACONSTPP;  Facing busts of Heraclius, with short beard, on left, and smaller, beardless Heraclius Constantine to right, each wearing crown and chlamys; between their heads, cross.
Rev.  VICTORI AAVGGΔ;  Cross potent on two steps above exergual line; in ex., CONOB. The Δ at the end of the inscription is the Indiction year.
DOC 206, SB 867
AR ½ siliqua of Carthage, 614-641, officina , 0.7g, 11.9mm, 180º.
Obv.  DNЄRA(CLIOPPAV);  Bust of Heraclius facing, beardless, wearing cuirass, paludamentum, and crown with pendilia and cross.
Rev.  To left, bust of Heraclius Constantine wearing chlamys with tablion and crown with pendilia and cross, to right bust of Martina wearing robes and crown with long pendilia and cross, cross between heads.
DOC 233, SB 871
This type continues the style of the siliqua struck at Carthage for Maurice's son, Theodosius. Their only real precedent seems the coins of Cherson of Justin II and Maurice's reign. Forum Ancient Coins notes "The most likely occasion for this issue would have been Martina's coronation in 614 A.D. Based on the number of surviving specimens, production may have continued for several years. Martina was extensively featured on the copper coinage of Heraclius from c. 615 to c. 629 A.D."
Æ ½ follis of Carthage, 611-612, officina , 5.82g, 21mm, 200º.
Obv.  DNЄRAC LIOPPAV;  Facing crowned bust of Heraclius, holding globus cruciger.
Rev.  Large XX with pellet between; to right, IЄ (signifying fifteenth indictional year); in ex., KRTG.
SB 873
Æ ½ follis of Carthage, 610-641, officina , g, mm.
Obv.  (DNЄR) ACLIOPPAV;  Helmeted, cuirassed and bearded bust facing, holding globus cruciger.
Rev.  Large X·X; above, cross; to left, star; to right, Є; in ex., KRTS.
DOC 235, SB 874
Wroth believed (and Sear sites) the Є to be an indictional indicator (indiction 5: 616/7 or 631/2), but Dumbarton Oaks says it is a meaningless copy from older coins. Since coins depicting Heraclius bearded and unbearded exist with "indictional" years 5 and 15, it would seem futile to attempt deduce any chronology from this symbol.
Æ ½ follis of Carthage, 610-641, officina , 5.35g, 18mm, 270º.
Obv.  DNЄRAC LIOPPAV;  Facing crowned bust of Heraclius, holding globus cruciger.
Rev.  Large XX with pellet between; to right, Є (signifying fifth indictional year); in ex., KRTG.
DOC 234, SB 872
DOC states that the Є on the reverse here, which might be thought to signify the fifth indictional year, (614-615), is "a meaningless immobilization of datings used in earlier reigns".
Æ decanummium of Carthage, 610-641, officina , 3.6g, 16.5mm.
Obv.  DNERAC LIOPPAVG;  Beardless, helmeted bust facing, wearing cuirass.
Rev.  Large X between N and M, both of which have pellets above and below; beneath, star; above, cross.
DOC 236, SB 876
Æ decanummium of Carthage, 610-641, officina , 3.36g, 14mm, 135º.
Obv.  DNERA C(LIOPPAV);  D.N.ERA - CLIOPP Crowned, draped and cuirassed beardless bust facing
Rev.  Large X between N and M, without the pellets above and beneath; above, cross; beneath, star.
DOC 237, MIB 237c, SB 877
Scarce variant without the pellets above and beneath.
Æ pentanummium of Carthage, 610-641, officina , 1.76g, 12mm, 180º.
Obv.  Helmeted and cuirassed facing bearded bust.
Rev.  Large V, cross above; star and pellets each side, flanking.
DOC v239, SB 880
The bust on this piece is definitely bearded. DOC does not have an example of this in their collection but has a footnote concerning this: the coin is listed in Ratto, with a beardless bust. Sabatier has an example of a bearded bust, but according to DOC, Tolstoi believed that to be a misattributed Catanian pentanummium.
Catania
The mint at Catania, Sicily appears to have closed have ceased production in year 19 (629).
Æ decanummium of Catania, 619-620, officina , g, mm.
Obv.  (D)NЄRAC (LIVSPP)AVG;  Crowned, draped and cuirassed bust facing, with short beard and holding globus cruciger.
Rev.  Large I between A / N /N / O and regnal year X; in ex., mintmark CTA (presumably blundered CAT)
DOC v251, SB v885
Æ decanummium of Catania, 625-626, officina , g, mm.
Obv.  No legend. Crowned, draped and cuirassed busts facing of bearded Heraclius, on left, and beardless Constantine on right.
Rev.  Large I between A / N / N / O and regnal year, X / ς (16). In ex., CAT.
DOC 257, SB 886
Æ pentanummium of Catania, 610-623, officina , 2.77g, 14mm, 200º.
Obv.  (DN)ЄRACvLIPPAVG;  Diademed bust of Emperor, right, unbearded.
Rev.  Large V between two stars; in ex., CAT.
DOC v260 (Unbearded type mentioned in footnote), SB v887 (unbearded)
Neither the British Museum nor the Bibliotèque Nationale has this rare issue. Sear references only the type where he has a beard; DOC note mentions both types. DOC says this type likely preceded the bearded type.
Æ pentanummium of Catania, 610-641, officina , 1.65g, 12mm.
Obv.  (DN)ЄRACvLIPPAVG;  Diademed bust of Emperor, right, bearded.
Rev.  Large V between two stars; in ex., CAT.
DOC 260 (), SB 887 ()
Cherson
Æ follis of Cherson, 616-624, officina , 8.08g, 27mm, 60º.
Obv.  Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine standing facing, each holding globus cruciger; small cross between.
Rev.  Martina standing left, holding long staff topped by reversed staurogram; large H to left.
Anokhin 322, DOC 311, MIB 265, SB 926
Constantinople
AV solidus of Constantinople, 610-613, officina Є, 4.48g, 22mm.
Obv.  dNhЄRAClIy SPPA(VG);  Draped and cuirassed, short-bearded bust facing, wearing plumed helmet and holding cross in right hand.
Rev.  VICTORIA AVςyЄ;  Cross potent on three steps; beneath, CONOB.
DOC 3b, SB 731
AV tremissis of Constantinople, 610-613, officina S, 1.47g, 17mm.
Obv.  δNhЄRACLI ySτPPAV;  Beardless, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev.  VICTORIAAVGUS;  Cross potent; in ex., CONOB.
DOC 53c, SB 786
AV solidus of Constantinople, c.616-625, officina Є, 4.41g, 22mm, 180º.
Obv.  ddNNhЄRACLIySЄThЄRACONSTPPAVG;  Facing busts of Heraclius and much smaller Heraclius Constantine, each wearing chlamys and simple crown with cross on circlet, Heraclius with short beard and Heraclius Constantine without, cross above their heads.
Rev.  VICTORIA AVGVЄ;  Cross potent on three steps. Mintmark CONOB in the exergue.
DOC 13d, SB 738
AV solidus of Constantinople, c.626-629, officina I, g, 19mm.
Obv.  ddNNhЄRACLIySЄThЄRACONSTPPAVG;  Facing, bearded busts of Heraclius and slightly smaller Heraclius Constantine, each wearing chlamys and crown surmounted with cross; cross between their heads.
Rev.  VICTORIA AVGYIK;  Cross potent on three steps. Mintmark CONOB in the exergue.
DOC 24, SB 747
AV solidus of Constantinople, 629-631, officina Z, 4.36g, 21mm.
Obv.  ddNNhЄRACLIySЄτHЄRACONSTPPAV;  Heraclius on left with long beard and whiskers. Heraclius Constantine on the right with slight beard and moustache.
Rev.  VICTORIA AVςYZ;  Cross potent on three steps; beneath, CONOB.
Berk 126, DOC 26g, SB 749
AV solidus of Constantinople, c.636-637, officina S, 4.31g, 22mm.
Obv.  No legend. Heraclius standing facing between Heraclonas and Heraclius Constantine, also standing facing, all wearing crown and chlamys and holding globus cruciger.
Rev.  VICTORIA AVGVS;  Cross potent on three steps, monogram to the left of the cross, I to the right. The mintmark CONOB appears in the exergue.
DOC 38a, SB 763
AR hexagram of Constantinople, 615-638, officina , 6.42g, 25mm, 175º.
Obv.  (ddN)NhЄRACLIuS ЄτhЄRA CONSτ;  Heraclius with short beard, on left, and Heraclius Constantine, beardless, on right, seated facing on double throne; each wears cross and chlamys, and holds globus cruciger in right hand; between their heads, U.
Rev.  δЄuSA(δI)uτAROmANIS;  Cross potent on globe above three steps; in field to right, K.
BMC 100, DOC 64, SB 798
This reverse legend, "God help the Romans," was a battle cry - still in Latin - of the Imperial armies. This was the only non-ceremonial silver coinage issued in the capital at the time, and was initially struck from the melted down church silver donated by the Patriarch Sergios to help fend off the double threat of the Persians and Avars. The name of this denomination, the hexagram, is derived from its weight of just above six grams.
Æ follis of Constantinople, 612-613, officina Δ, 10.84g, 30mm, 160º. As usual with this issue, this piece is over struck on an, in this case unidentifiable, earlier coin.
Obv.  (δNhRACLIVS P)ЄRPAVG;  Cuirassed bust facing, bearded and wearing crown and holding globus cruciger and shield.
Rev.  Large M between A / N / N / O and regnal indicator, II / I; above, cross; beneath, officina number, Δ; in ex., C(ON).
BMC 114, DOC 71c, SB 804
Æ follis of Constantinople, 613, officina Δ, 12.75g, 31.5mm, 350º. Crown of bust of understrike obverse visible at 90º on obverse. PAVG visible of understrike obverse at top of obverse. (AN)NO and year GIII of previous strike reverse visible on reverse.
Obv.  ddNNhЄRACLIyS ЄτhЄRACONSτPPA;  Heraclius, bearded on left, and Heraclius Constantine on right, standing facing, each wearing crown and chlamys, and holding globus cruciger in right hand. Between their heads, cross.
Rev.  Large M between A / N / N / O and II / I; above, chi-rho; beneath, officina number Δ; in ex., CON.
DOC 76d, SB 805
Æ follis of Constantinople, 619-620, officina Γ, 7.03g, 25mm, 120º.
Obv.  No legend. Heraclius, with Empress Martina, with pendilia, on right and Heraclius Constantine on left, all standing facing, each wearing crown and chlamys and holding globus cruciger in right hand.
Rev.  Large M surmounted by cross; to left, A / N / N / O; regnal indicator X to right; beneath, officina letter Γ; in ex., CON.
DOC v92 (unlisted officina), SB v807 (unlisted officina)
Æ follis of Constantinople, 622-623, officina A, 6.54g, 27mm, 320º.
Obv.  No legend. Heraclius, with Empress Martina, with pendilia, on left and Heraclius Constantine on right, all standing facing, each wearing crown and chlamys and holding globus cruciger in right hand. Crosses in fields to either side of Heraclius' head.
Rev.  Large M surmounted by cross; to left, A / N / N / O; to right regnal indicator X / II / I; beneath, A; mintmark (C)O(N) barely visible.
DOC 93, SB 806
Æ follis of Constantinople, 626-627, officina A, 5.06g, 24mm, 350º.
Obv.  No inscription. Heraclius standing centre, with Heraclius Constantine to right and Martina to left. Each wears chlamys and crown and holds globus cruciger.
Rev.  Large M with cross above, A beneath; Sear monogram 23/4 to left; ANNO above; CON below; and regnal year X / ςI to right.
DOC 101a, SB 808
This type of reverse, with the ANNO placed over the Greek M, is unique to Heraclius. (Though Phocas frequently placed the ANNO over the Roman numerals XXXX.)
Æ follis of Constantinople, 629-630, officina A, 9.51g, 31mm, 170º. Large module. Over struck on earlier coin, possibly of Heraclius' own reign.
Obv.  Heraclius, with long beard and moustache in military dress and wearing crown, holds long cross and stands to right of short-bearded Heraclius Constantine, wearing crown and chlamys and holding globus cruciger.
Rev.  Large M between A / N / N / O and regnal indicator X / X; above, C surmounted by cross; beneath, officina number A; in ex., CON.
BMC 145, BN 57, DOC 105a, MIB 164, Ratto 1406-08, SB 810
This class of follis was introduced in year twenty (629-630) and represented a serious effort to return the copper coinage to its weight, and hence value, at the beginning of the reign. The effort lasted through year twenty-one, after which the coins fell from a weight of 9-11g. to 6-8g. From year twenty-three until the class was retired in year thirty, the weight was reduced even further to approximately 4.5-6g. Even though her influence over Heraclius was undiminished, Martina was dropped from these coins, presumably to give greater prominence to Heraclius Constantine. The C beneath the + above the denominational mark likely represents (Heraclius) Constantine. The emperor himself being depicted in military attire is a presumed reference to his recent victories of the Persians, while the long cross he is holding is representative of the True Cross his campaign restored. These are frequently overstruck on earlier coins, often of Heraclius' own reign.
Æ follis of Constantinople, 629-630, officina A, 10.76g, 31mm, 160º.
Obv.  Heraclius, with long beard and moustache in military dress and wearing crown, holds long cross in left hand with right hand holding sheathed sword and stands to right of short-bearded Heraclius Constantine, wearing crown and chlamys and holding globus cruciger. Between their heads, cross.
Rev.  Large M between A / N / N / O and regnal indicator X / X; above, C surmounted by cross; beneath, officina number A; in ex., CON.
misc First described by Peter Lampinen in NumCirc Vol. CIX, Feb. 2001, p.5, SB v810 (Unlisted variant)
Extremely rare first trial issue AE Follis with Heraclius holding sword. This rare initial type is described by Peter Lampinen in The Numismatic Circular, Vol. CIX, Feb. 2001, p.5.
Æ follis of Constantinople, 639-640, officina Є, 6.23g, 25mm, 150º. Small module.
Obv.  No legend. Heraclius, on left, and Heraclius Constantine, on right standing facing, with cross between their heads. Heraclius wears crown and military dress, and holds long cross, his son wears crown and chlamys, and holds globus cruciger.
Rev.  Large M between A / N / N / O and X / X / X above, Sear monogram 21; beneath, officina mark Є; in ex., CON.
DOC v115 (Unlisted officina), SB 810
This is a typical example of the small module, crude, and very common type of this issue.
Æ follis of Constantinople, 640-641, officina Є, 5.06g, 25mm, 175º.
Obv.  Facing crowned figures of Heraclius, Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas, the emperor with long cross, long beard and moustache, and wearing military attire.
Rev.  Large M between A / N / N / O and regnal year X / X / X / I. Above, Sear monogram 21; beneath, officina letterr Є; in ex., CON.
DOC 127b, SB 811
This type of follis was only struck for a few months before the death of Heraclius early in 641. The Θ following the mintmark occurs frequently on this year for this type, the final months of Heraclius' reign.
Æ ¾ follis of Constantinople, 630-631, officina B, 7.55g, 26mm, 120º. Overstruck on earlier follis of Thessalonica.
Obv.  No legend. Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine standing facing with cross between their heads. In field to left, Sear monogram 23; to right, small K.
Rev.  Large Λ; to left, A / N / N / O; to right, regnal numerals X / X / I; beneath, officina number B; in ex., CO(N).
DOC v117b (Only lists year 20 for this denomination), SB v812 (Unlisted officina for year)
The three quarter follis denomination was briefly revived as part of the failed monetary reform of 629-630. Nearly all examples are of year 20. This piece is a seemingly unpublished variant. Whilst Sear lists two officinas for year 21, (A and Γ), DOC lists none for that year, though citing the possibility of their existence.
Æ ½ follis of Constantinople, 610-611, officina B, 5.72g, 25mm, 180º.
Obv.  Heraclius facing, bearded and with pendilia hanging from what looks to be an un-plumed crown, and holding globus cruciger in left hand.
Rev.  Large K; to left, A / N / N / O; to right, regnal year I; beneath, B; above, cross.
DOC v72 (unlisted officina for year), SB v813 (unlisted officina for year)
This first class of Heraclius’ half folles continues the style of Maurice, and as with those prior issues, the realms of guessing are often entered in assigned them to specific mints. Heraclius’ cuirass lacks the distinctive line of three pellets which would assign this piece to Cyzicus, or the plumed helmet and and horizontal lines across the cuirass of Nicomedia. (Though it is, by all accounts, frequently difficult to differentiate between Constantinople and Nicomedia on these issues.)
Æ ½ follis of Constantinople, 629-630, officina Є, 5.70g, 26.5mm, 140º. Overstruck on earlier follis. On the reverse, the mintmark (CO)N and regnal year V / II of the understrike reverse are visible at 2 o'clock.
Obv.  Heraclius in military dress standing to left, with Heraclius Constantine standing to right, both facing. Between their heads, cross. Sear monogram 23 in field to left.
Rev.  Large K, with cross above, officina number Є beneath. Regnal year XX to right.
DOC 118b, SB 815
Æ decanummium of Constantinople, 617-618, officina , g, mm.
Obv.  dNHЄRACLIySPPAVG;  Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, beardless.
Rev.  Large X, with cross above; to right regnal year ЧI / II.
DOC 97, MIB 232 (Thessalonica), SB 818
CNG takes Hahn in MIB's lead and assigns this Thessalonica in their catalogues.
Cyprus
Æ follis of Cyprus, 626-627, officina Γ, 5.02g, 30mm. Overstruck on a Phocas follis of Antioch.
Obv.  Heraclius in centre, with Heraclius Constantine on right and Martina on left, all standing facing; each wearing chlamys and holding globus cruciger in right hand.
Rev.  Large M between A / NI and regnal year X / II / ς; above, Sear monogram 23; beneath, "officina" number Γ.
DOC v185 (different digit configuration), SB 849
"The coin illustrated in Sear for a Cyprus follis of Heraclius is in fact an imitation, such as this coin. They were most likely struck in Syria in the confusing times between the Persian and Islamic invasions, when Byzantine rule in the east was weak. They copy the three standing figures follis of Cyprus, and are struck on distinctive flans, which are earlier large folles that have been cut in half and the corners clipped, creating a 'football' shaped flan." Overstruck on cut-down Phocas follis. Sold as Cypriot-Syrian imitation of Heraclius AE follis, but it seems unlikely that these would have been overstruck on legitimate currency. Besides, the gamma officina is the only one of the 'genuine' Cypriot coins. On the other hand, the misspelling of ANNO on the reverse is highly suggestive of an imitative source.
Æ follis of Cyprus, 628-629, officina Γ, 5.17g, 23.5mm, 150º.
Obv.  Heraclius in centre, with Heraclius Constantine on right and Martina, with clearly visible pendilia and loops, on left, all standing facing; each wearing crown and chlamys and holding globus cruciger in right hand.
Rev.  Large M between A / N / N / (O) and regnal year X / VI / III; above, Sear monogram 23; beneath, "officina" number Γ. Below, (no exergual line,) KVΠP'.
DOC 185, SB 849
The officina Γ seen on these Cypriot coins is not considered a real officina by DOC, as officinas A and B are never seen on coins from the mint (though these coins were frequently copied in the newly Arab regions, where the officina mark is other than Γ.) The Γ is considered copied from some model, and to have no meaning in its own right. "These distinctive imitative folles from "Cyprus" and "Constantinople" mints were probably struck in Syria during the campaign against the Persians in the 620s, when disordered conditions led to the production of local coinages. Although relatively scarce today, they must have been struck in vast quantities; it is rare to find a die match with a published specimen." CNG 66 (May 2004) catalogue.
Cyzicus
The history and style of the Cyzicus mint runs a similiar line to nearby Nicomedia. During the reign of Heraclius both mints had only sporadic production, due to the Persian advance through Asia Minor, though Cyzicus appears to have been affected first. Coins were produced between years one and five (610-615) and sixteen to nineteen (625-629).
Æ follis of Cyzicus, 612-613, officina B, g, mm.
Obv.  ddNNhЄRACLIySЄτhRA(CONSτPPAV);  Heraclius, bearded on left, and Heraclius Constantine on right, standing facing, each wearing crown and chlamys, and holding globus cruciger in right hand. Between their heads, cross.
Rev.  Large M between A / N / N / O and III; above, cross; beneath, officina number B; in ex., KYZ.
DOC 175b, SB 840
This type features a very dwarvish Heraclius Constantine, though as he was only a year or two old at this time, this is perhaps only highlighting his extrement youth. He was crowned co-emperor in 613.
Æ follis of Cyzicus, 612-613, officina B, 10.37g, 33mm.
Obv.  dNhRACLI PЄRPAVG;  Bust facing, wearing studded cuirass, plumed helmet and holding globus cruciger, shield at left shoulder.
Rev.  Large M between A / N / N / O and regnal year III; above, cross; beneath, officina number B; in ex., KYZ.
Berk 567, DOC 169b, SB 839
Æ follis of Cyzicus, 627-628, officina A, g, mm. Unearthed in Cyprus.
Obv.  No legend; Heraclius in centre, with Heraclius Constantine on right and the Empress Martina on left, all standing facing, each wearing crown and chlamys and holding globus cruciger in right hand.
Rev.  Large M with Sear monogram 26 to left; above, ANNO and cross; to right, regnal indicator X / yI / II (18); beneath, officina number A; beneath, KYZ, without exergual line.
Berk 569, DOC 177, SB 841
Isaura
Isaura, in the Cilician Mountains, appears to have been active only during regnal year 8 (617-18). It was presumably a military mint established for the eastern campaign. Sear notes, Heraclian bronzes of Isaura are generally (probably always) overstruck on those of earlier reigns and Harlan Berk notes the coins for all dies at cut at Isaura were the work of a single die cutter.
Æ follis of Isaura, 617-618, officina A, 11.13g, 32mm, 250º.
Obv.  d(dNh)ЄRACCЄhRA;  Facing busts of Heraclius, on left, and Heraclius Constantine, each wearing chlamys and crown with cross; between their heads, cross.
Rev.  Large M between A / N / N / O and regnal ς / II; above, cross; beneath, A; in ex., (I)SAYR.
BMC 267, DOC 183, SB 848
Jerusalem
AV solidus of Jerusalem, 611-613, officina , 4.48g, 20.5mm. Holed at 11 o’clock.
Obv.  dNhЄRACLI ySPPAVG;  Bust of Heraclius looking like Phocas with legend of Heraclius.
Rev.  VICTORIA AVGIΠ;  Angel standing facing, holding staff surmounted by Chi-Rho and globus cruciger; in exergue, CONOB.
Bendall_Jerusalem , BMC 1 (Constantinople), DOC 186 (Alexandria), MIB 76 (Cyprus), SB 850
It is generally presumed (Wroth, etc.) that this very rare, very first issue of the reign was rushed out by the mint before they had received any instructions, or likeness of the new emperor. DOC raises the interesting possibility that perhaps Heraclius initially wore the same style of pointed beard as his predecessor and changed style to differentiate himself. "Recent evidence has cast doubt upon the attribution by S. Bendall and M.F. Hendy of this and the later solidi, SB 852-852A, to the mint of Jerusalem [Bendall only ascribes this single bust type to Jerusalem, quite convincingly]. It is clearly an issue of a subsidiary mint in the east, but no definitive conclusion can be drawn as regards to place and date of origin. Nevertheless, the use of a Phocas portrait for this type, unique for a Heraclius solidus, could point to it being struck near the end of the revolt of Heraclius (circa 610 AD), when Heraclius had been proclaimed emperor, but with a formal imperial imago yet to be prepared. This unknown subsidiary mint, signed I, IX, or IΠ, struck solidi to pay eastern troops loyal to Heraclius, and apparently operated sporadically as a replacement for the mint of Antioch, which had been shut down by Heraclius in 610 AD. The (IP) mint itself disappears shortly after the Sasanian invasion of the eastern provinces in 614 AD." - CNG Triton VII Catalogue (12 Jan 2004) Simon Bendell's interesting article on the coinage of Jerusalem, in which he discusses the various types ascribed to Jerusalem and evaluates the evidence for each, can be found on the web at http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/numi_0484-8942_2003_num_6_159_2517. Bendall makes a well argued case for this type being struck in Jerusalem whilst questioning the attribution of the type with Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine (Sear 852 and 852A) to Jerusalem. According to Glen Woods byzantinecoins.com site, there are only 10 to 20 of this type known.
Nicomedia
Following a similiar trajectory to its sister mint at Cyzicus, the mint at Nicomedia was open from years one through nine (610-619) before shutting down due to the Persian invasion and not reopening again until year sixteen, when coins were struck through year nineteen (625-629).
Æ follis of Nicomedia, 612-613, officina A, 13.46g, mm. dNHЄRAC (...)
Obv.  Bust facing, wearing cuirass and crown with pendilia surmounted by cross and holding globus cruciger.
Rev.  Large M; beneath, officina number A; to left, A / N / N / O; to right, regnal indicator II / I; in ex., NIKO.
BN 3, DOC 155a, MIB 174, SB 833
Æ follis of Nicomedia, 612-613, officina B, 9.92g, 28mm, 120º.
Obv.  Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine stand facing, each wearing chlamys and crown. In right hand, each holds a globus cruciger. Between their heads, a cross.
Rev.  Large M; above, cross; to left, A / N / N / O; to right, II / I; beneath, B; in ex., NIKO.
DOC 158b, SB 834
Æ follis of Nicomedia, 615-616, officina A, g, mm. Wreathed border of understrike visible.
Obv.  No legend. Heraclius in centre, with Heraclius Constantine on right and Martina on left, all standing facing. Each wears crown and chlamys and holds globus cruciger in right hand.
Rev.  Large M between A / N / N / O and regnal year ς / II; above, cross; beneath, officina numeral A; in ex., NIKO.
DOC v162 (unlisted officina for year), SB 835
Æ follis of Nicomedia, 625-626, officina B, g, mm.
Obv.  No legend. Heraclius in centre with Heraclius Constantine on right and Martina on left, all standing facing, and wearing crown and chlamys with globus cruciger in right hand.
Rev.  Large M; to left, Sear monogram 23; above, ANNO and cross; to right, regnal year Xς (16); beneath, officina number B; in ex., NIKO.
Berk 560, DOC v165 (unlisted officina), SB 836
Ravenna
AV solidus of Ravenna, 613-629, officina H, 4.36g, 20.5mm, 180º.
Obv.  DDNNHЄRACLIVSЄTHЄRACONSI;  Facing busts of short-bearded Heraclius on left, and beardless Heraclius Constantine on right, each wearing crown, paludamentum and cuirass; between their heads, cross. Heavy annular border.
Rev.  VICTORI AAVGGGH;  Cross potent on three steps (four is the more common version); beneath, CONOB. Border as obverse.
BMC 426, DOC v271 (three steps not listed for off H), Grierson 550, Ratto 1382, SB 896
AR ¼ siliqua of Ravenna, 610-641, officina , 0.35g, 11mm.
Obv.  DNЄRACL IVSPAG;  Diademed and draped bust right.
Rev.  Cross potent in wreath.
DOC 281, SB 907
Æ follis of Ravenna, 637-638, officina , 3.94g, 24mm, 160º. The datew formation here is different than that listed for this year in Sear, Wroth and DOC, which list it as X / X / V / II / I.
Obv.  Figures of Heraclonas, Heraclius, and Heraclius Constantine standing facing, each holding globus cruciger.
Rev.  Large M; monogram (Sear 21) above, date X / X / V / III across field; in ex., RAV. No officina letter.
BMC 460, DOC v306 (date formation), SB 916
Æ ½ follis of Ravenna, 631-632, officina , 4.28g, mm.
Obv.  Heraclius, Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas standing facing.
Rev.  Large K between A / N / N / O and regnal year XX / III; above, cross; beneath, RAV.
DOC 308, SB 923
Æ follis of Ravenna, 630-631, officina Δ, 4.11g, 16mm, 160º.
Obv.  (DDNNhERACIVEThERC)ONTPP;  Heraclius, wearing crown and military attire, standing facing, with foot on prostrate figure below and holding long cross in right hand; to right, Heraclius Constantine, wearing crown and chlamys, standing facing and holding globus cruciger in right hand; cross between.
Rev.  Large K with cross above; A/N/N/O XXI (regnal year) across field, Δ below.
DOC 301, Ranieri 640, SB 922
The Ranieri reference is to E. Ranieri's La Monetazione di Ravenna Antica dal V al VIII Secolo (Bologna, 2006), as cited by CNG, from whom this coin was purchased.
Rome
Æ ½ follis of Rome, 613-c.620, officina , g, mm.
Obv.  Facing busts of Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine, both beardless and both wearing crown and chlamys; between their heads, a cross.
Rev.  Large XX; above, cross; in ex., ROM.
DOC 261, SB 889
Æ ½ follis of Rome, 622-623, officina , g, mm.
Obv.  Facing busts of Heraclius with Heraclius Constantine on right and Martina on left, each wearing crown and chlamys.
Rev.  Large K; to left, A / N / N; above X (part of the regnal numeral); to right, III, (remaining part of regnal year); in ex., ROM.
DOC 264, Ratto 1502-3, SB 891
Seleucia Isauriae
The mint was active between 615 and 618 to support Heraclius’ campaigns against the Sasanians.
Æ follis of Seleucia Isauriae, 616-617, officina A, 8.17g, 28.5mm, 190º. Struck off-centre.
Obv.  Incomplete blundered legend. Facing busts of Heraclius on left and smaller Heraclius Constantine, each wearing crown with cross and chlamys. Cross between their heads.
Rev.  Large M, with officina mark A beneath middle. To left, (A / N / N / O); to right, regnal year ς / I (7). Above (chi-rho). In exergue, mint mark (SЄLI)Sy.
Berk 574, BMC 274a (Antioch), DOC 180, Sabatier 67 (Ephesus), SB 844
Whilst noting their stylistic similiarity to the Isauria mint, Wroth believes the mintmark here to be a "blundered reproduction" of tHЄuPI, calling Sabatier's SЄPSyS reading of the mintmark to indicate a mint at Ephesus "far from probable".
Æ follis of Seleucia Isauriae, 616-617, officina A, 10.60g, 31mm, 170º.
Obv.  Blundered legend. Heraclius on left, holding globus cruciger, and Heraclius Constantine on right standing facing; cross between.
Rev.  Large M, Christogram above, A / N / N / (O) to left, date to right; beneath, A; in ex., (SЄL)ISU.
DOC 181a, MIB 193, SB 845
Æ ½ follis of Seleucia Isauriae, 616-617, officina B, 5.18g, 22mm, 200º.
Obv.  Incomplete blundered legend. Facing busts of Heraclius on left and smaller Heraclius Constantine, each wearing crown with cross and chlamys. Cross between their heads.
Rev.  Large K, with officina mark b beneath; to left, A / N / N / O; to right, regnal year ςI; above cross; in ex, mint mark S(ЄL').
DOC 182b, MIB 195, SB 846 ()
Sicily
Æ follis of Sicily, c. 620, officina , g, mm. Countermarked follis of Justinian, of Cyzicus (presuming from layout of regnal figures), of 545-546, officina A, larger type (SB 207, DOC 171a).
Obv.  Countermark of Heraclius' bearded bust facing. He wears cuirass. To right, monogram (Sear 22), stamped over upper part of Justinian's portrait, obscuring top of head and inscription.
Rev.  SCLS under bar within oval punched over mintmark of original coin.
DOC v241, SB v882
DO says that this countermark is found, "with only rare exceptions", of which the coin here is an example, on folles of Constantinople from between 498-539 with profile busts. These coins had probably arrived in Sicily some eight-five years before with Belasarius' troops in 535 and never been withdrawn from circulation. Since the coin here was not struck until ten years after Belasarius' campaign (and is not from the capital's mint,) it must have its own story. The dies are thought to have been made at Catania, whilst the actual punching of the countermarks was done locally.
Æ follis of Sicily, c. 631, officina , g, mm. Overstruck on a Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine follis of Constantinople, type SB 810, with visible regnal year X / X / I and officina D.
Obv.  SCL, under bar, within oval punch stamped over lower part of standing figures on the original coin.
Rev.  Facing busts of Heraclius, on left, with short beard, and beardless Heraclius Constantine on right, each wearing crown and chlamys, all within oval punch stamped over middle part of the M on the original coin.
DOC 242, SB 883
Æ follis of Sicily, 632-641, officina , 7.33g, mm. AE follis of Constantinople countermarked for use in Sicily, 632-641, 7.33g. Overstruck on follis of Constantinople, 631-2, countermarked on both reverse and obverse. Reverse, upper part of M still visible and regnal year X / X / II. (looks to be SB 810.)
Obv.  Within oval punch stamped on previous coin: facing busts of Heraclius on left, with long beard and Heraclius Constantine with short beard. Each wears crown and chlamys. Between their heads, a cross.
Rev.  Oval punch stamped on reverse, containing Sear monogram 22 and SCs.
Berk 610, DOC 243, MIB Plate 18 KM6, SB 884
Thessalonica
Though primarily a source of ½ folles during the 6th century, during the 7th Thessalonica's production overwhelmingly consisted of full folles. The mintmark was also Grecianized from TЄS to ΘЄS. During the reign of Heraclius the only officina appearing on the bronze of Thessalonica is B, which would seem to indicate it was a meaningless mark, copied from a type. The mint ceased production in year twenty (630) of the reign - the year of Heraclius' great currency reform - presumably due to the Slavic encroachment across the Balkans. It has been suggested that the later pieces from Constantinople with a Θ following the mint-mark may have something to do with Thessalonica.
Æ follis of Thessalonica, 617-618, officina B, 9.86g, 34mm, 0º.
Obv.  dNhЄRAC L(IUSPPAVG);  Heraclius on left and Heraclius Constantine on right standing facing.
Rev.  Large M between ANNO and regnal UI / II; above, cross; beneath, B; in ex., ΘЄ(C).
BMC 218, DOC 138, MIB 220, SB 824
Understike inscription garbles inscription to right on obverse.
Æ follis of Thessalonica, 623-624, officina B, 8.22g, 24mm, 0º. Only the last letter of the mintmark is visible, and then curiously in centre.
Obv.  Heraclius in centre, Heraclius Constantine on right, and Martina on left, stand facing.
Rev.  Large M between A / N / N / O and regnal indicator X / II / II; cross above and officina number B below; in ex., (ΘЄ)C.
BMC 219, DOC 146, SB 825
Like the Γ on Heraclius' coins of Cyprus, the officina mark B on the coins of Thessalonica appears to have no meaning in its own right, being probably copied from some model. Were it otherwise, coins of officina A would most probably be known. DOC notes the third figure must be Martina, as Heraclonas was not yet born, and that it is interesting that no attempt is made to differentiate Martina with the crown of an empress. She was deeply unpopular so perhaps there was no desire to draw undue attention to her?
Æ follis of Thessalonica, 629-630, officina A, 5.92g, 23mm, 170º. Very worn.
Obv.  No legend. Heraclius, on left, and Heraclius Constantine, on right standing facing. Heraclius wears military dress.
Rev.  Large M between A / (N) / N / (O) and regnal indicator X / X (though not completely clear); above, cross or chi-rho; beneath officina number A; in ex., (Θ)ЄC.
SB 826
Hard to say with certainity that this is an example of this rare coin - unlisted in DOC - but the mint mark appears to be that Thessalonica. The stance of Heraclius and the stiff flare at the waist of his garments indicate he is wearing military attire, though the bottom of his robe or legs cannot be seen. The figure of Heraclius Constantine is also of the same size as that of his father, which would further support the argument for this later type.
Æ ½ follis of Thessalonica, 610-611, officina , 4.92g, 20.3mm, 185º.
Obv.  Blundered legend. Helmeted, draped and cuirassed bust of Heraclius facing, with short beard, holding globus cruciger.
Rev.  Large XX with dot between; above, cross; regnal year I at right; TЄS in exergue.
DOC 131, MIB 225, Ratto 1302, SB 828
It is curious to note that the ½ folles of this mint continued with the Latin numbering - XX - on the reverse for the first three years of Heraclius' reign before switching over to the Greek K.
Æ ½ follis of Thessalonica, 617-618, officina , 4.99g, 26mm, 190º.
Obv.  (dNhЄRACLIySPPAVG;  Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine facing, seated on backless throne, each crowned and holding globus cruciger in their right hand.
Rev.  Large K between A / N / N / O and regnal indicator U I / II; in ex., ΘЄC.
DOC v143 (Unlisted regnal year configuration UI/II), SB v830 (Unlisted regnal year configuration UI/II)
The regnal marking here is definitely UI / II and not the UI / III listed in the refs. The layout of the II on the second line leaves no space between the border for a worn or badly struck third I. DOC reads the figures here as seated; Wroth's BMC says they are standing; and Sear splits the difference, saying the figures are either seated or standing. In my judgement it's a difficult call: there are specimens where the two definitely appear seated, like the plate for DOC 144, but as often they strike me as standing.
Uncertain Eastern mint
AV solidus of Uncertain Eastern mint, 613-618, officina IX, 4.43g, 22.5mm, 135º.
Obv.  ddNNhЄRACLIyS ЄthЄR(ACONStPPA);  Facing busts of Heraclius, with short beard, on left, and smaller, beardless Heraclius Constantine to right, each wearing crown and chlamys; between their heads, cross.
Rev.  VICTORIA AVGYIX;  Cross potent on three steps above CONOB.
Bendall_Jerusalem  (Northern Syria), DOC 188 (Alexandria), SB 852 (Jerusalem)
The attribution to Jerusalem for this type, with the squat figures of Heraclius and his son, is made by Bendall and Hendy, and backed by Sear. DOC, published before Bendall and Hendy's thesis, attributes this type to Alexandria, whilst Hahn gives it to Cyprus. Grierson, in DOC, says he is merely following Bellinger in assigning them to Alexandria. Though he himself claims to doubt this attribution, he begs off by saying he has no better solution to offer. The type seen here, with the reverse inscription ending IX is the type most strongly associated with Jerusalem. "Bendall, in his recent article on the "Jerusalem" coinage, concludes the evidence is against the Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine solidi being struck at that city. Site finds suggest a mint in either Egypt or northern Syria, with the latter being more probable. These solidi belong in the same category as the bronze issues of Seleucia Isauria and Isaura, being the products of temporary military mints supporting the army as it advances against the Persian occupiers of Byzantine Syria and the east." CNG Triton VIII catalogue, Nov 2004. Simon Bendell's interesting article on the coinage of Jerusalem, in which he discusses the various types ascribed to Jerusalem and evaluates the evidence for each, can be found on the web at http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/numi_0484-8942_2003_num_6_159_2517.
Last modified on 05 Jan 2017